Clinimed - Life with a stoma
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Terminology

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A
Abdominoperineal excision
A surgical procedure for the removal of a low rectal or anal tumour resulting in a permanent colostomy. It is sometimes called an APER or APR.
Abscess
A localised collection of pus, either under the skin or in a cavity.
Accessories (ostomy)
Examples include washers, pastes, belts, skin barriers, creams and deodorants.
ACE
Antigrade colonic enema.
Acupuncture
Insertion of special needles to specific points of the body.
Acute
A sudden onset of symptoms.
Adenocarcinoma
Malignant cells.
Adenoma
A benign tumour or growth that arises from the layer of cells lining the organ (epithelium).
Adenomatous polyp
A benign tumour or growth. It can be removed with a colonoscope.
Adhesion
Two surfaces that stick together following surgery or infection.
Adjuvant therapy
Radiotherapy/chemotherapy either pre- or post-operatively.
Allergy
Hypersensitivity to a foreign substance.
Anaemia
A blood condition resulting in a decrease or deficiency in red blood cells.
Anal canal
Connects the rectum to the anus.
Anal sphincter
Controls defaecation.
Analgesics
Pain-relieving drugs.
Anastomosis
A surgical join of two ends of a healthy bowel.
Anterior resection
Surgical removal of the end part of the colon and rectum.
Anti-coagulants
Medication to thin the blood.
Anti-depressants
Medication to alleviate depression.
Anti-inflammatory
Medication to reduce swelling.
Appliance
An adhesive one or two piece pouch to be worn over your stoma.
Ascending colon
The large bowel situated on the right side of the abdomen.
Ascites
An abnormal collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
B
Ballooning
When the pouch or bag fills with gas or flatus.
Barium enema
An x-ray investigation where a chalky, milky substance is introduced into the bowel.
Barium meal
A chalky, milky mixture that is drunk, which outlines the bowel when x-rayed.
Benign growth
A non-cancerous growth.
Biopsy
Removal of a small piece of tissue.
Burping the pouch
The process by which the pouch or bag is released from the body to release gas.
Bypass
A surgical redirection.
C
Caecum
The first 10-15cm of the ascending colon.
Cancer
An abnormal division of cells within the body.
Catheter
A tube inserted into the body to give fluid or take away fluids.
CEA test
‘Carcion-Embryonic Antigen’. A specific blood test that may indicate possible changes within the body.
Chemotherapy
Drug treatment for cancer.
Chronic
Long standing or slow progression of a disease or symptoms.
Closed pouch
Pouch or bag that is used for colostomates.
Colectomy
A surgical procedure to remove part or all of the colon.
Colon
The large bowel.
Colonoscopy
Examination of the colon with a special scope with a camera on it inserted via the anus.
Colostomy
An artificial opening of the large bowel onto the surface of the abdomen.
Computed tomography (CT) scan
A high resolution x-ray.
Constipation
Infrequent or incomplete passing of hard, dry stools.
Convexity
An appliance that has an outward curve that applies pressure to the peristomal skin.
Cortocosteroids
Medication to reduce inflammation.
Crohn’s disease
A chronic inflammatory disease of the gastro-intestinal tract.
CT Pneumocolon
X-ray procedure that uses air to look at the bowel.
CT Scan
An x-ray using a computerised technique.
Cut-to-fit
An appliance where the flange is cut to the exact size and shape of the stoma.
Cystectomy
Complete removal of the bladder.
D
Defaecation
Emptying of faecal matter from the large bowel.
Defunctioning stoma
A stoma that allows the repaired bowel to rest.
Dermatitis
Inflammation of the skin.
Descending colon
The last part of the large bowel leading to the rectum and anus.
Diarrhoea
Frequent and excessive loss of watery stools.
Dilate
Stretch or widen.
Distal
Furthest away from.
Distension
An uncomfortable, bloated feeling in the abdomen.
Diverticular Disease
Small pockets that form in the wall of the large bowel most commonly found in the descending or sigmoid colon.
Drainable pouch
A stoma appliance that can be emptied at the bottom. It can be worn for several days.
Dukes staging
A staging system for bowel cancer.
E
Eczema
Superficial inflammatory process involving the skin.
Endoscopy
A scope that allows inspection of the gastrointestinal tract.
Erectile dysfunction
Inability to achieve full or partial erection of the penis.
Excoriation
Peristomal skin that has been exposed to an irritant.
F
Familial adenomatous polyposis
An inherited disease of the bowel.
Filter – Dual-Carb®
A filter for a stoma pouch that allows gas / flatus to be gently dispersed.
Fistula
A correction passage between two organs or skin.
Flange
An adhesive base plate to which the appliance attaches.
Flatus
A natural gas which is a by-product of the digestive system.
G
Genetics
The study of hereditary development.
Gracilis Neosphincter
A complex surgical procedure to avoid a permanent stoma.
H
Haemorrhage
Excessive bleeding.
Haemorrhoids
Swollen veins in the anus, which may cause pain. Also referred to as piles.
Hartmanns procedure
A surgical procedure that results in a colostomy.
Hemicolectomy
A surgical procedure that results in removal of part of the bowel (left or right side).The joining of the two remaining ends to restore normal function.
Hernia
A small protrusion of the intestine through a weakness in the abdominal muscles.
Homeopathy
Treatment of disease using natural non-chemical medication.
I
Ileal conduit
A surgical procedure to create an artificial opening to divert urine onto the abdomen.
Ileoanal pouch
This procedure is usually recommended for patients with ulcerative colitis (and more rarely Familial Adenomatous Polyposis). The surgical procedure will remove both the bowel and rectum and then create a pouch (also referred to as a reservoir) utilising the distal ileum. This pouch is sometimes referred to as a J-pouch.
Ileocaecal junction
Joining of the small and large bowel.
Ileostomy
A surgical procedure where the ileum is brought out onto the abdomen and a stoma is formed.
Ileum
The small bowel.
Impotence
Inability to achieve an erection due to psychological or physiological problems.
Incision line
A surgical cut.
Incontinence
The inability to hold on to stools or urine.
Interstitial cystitis
Inflammation of bladder tissue causing inflammation, pain and frequency on passing urine.
Irrigation
An introduction of fluid via a stoma.
Irritable bowel syndrome
A syndrome of varying bowel symptoms.
Ischaemia
A lack of blood supply to an organ or structure.
J
Jaundice
A yellowish colouring to the skin and eyes.
L
Laparotomy
A mid-line incision in the abdomen.
Lesion
An abnormal area of tissue.
Lubrication
A substance to avoid friction.
Lymph nodes
Part of the lymphatic system that acts as a barrier to infection.
M
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
A magnetic x-ray scan.
Malabsorption
The body’s inability to absorb nutrients.
Malignant tumour
A cancerous growth.
Margin
When the tumour is excised a wide area (a margin) needs to be clear from any cancerous cells.
Megacolon
A bowel, which has become excessively dilated.
Mesentery
Blood supply to the intestine.
Mesorectum
The top layer that lines the bowel.
Metachronous
Occurring at different times.
Metastases
A spread of a secondary cancer from the original tumour site.
Microporous tape
An acrylic based tape.
Micturition
Emptying urine out of the bladder. Also referred to as urination.
Mitrofonoff procedure
A surgical procedure when a reservoir is formed using bladder or bowel.
Mucus
A jelly-like substance produced by the bowel.
N
Nasogastric tube
A tube that is put into the nose and leads down into the stomach.
Nausea
A feeling of sickness.
Necrosis
Destruction of tissue through lack of blood supply.
Neo adjuvant drugs
Chemotheraphy/radiotherapy given before surgery.
Night drainage bag
A bag that has a large capacity for overnight use.
O
Obstruction
A blockage that stops the normal function of a structure or organ.
Oedema
Accumulation of fluid causing swelling of local tissue.
Oncologist
A doctor specialising in cancer treatments, eg radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
One-piece pouch
A pouch with a hydrocolloid flange, which adheres to the body.
Opaque
A pouch you can’t see through.
P
Palliative treatment
A treatment that is designed to relieve the symptoms of disease rather than cure.
Panproctocolectomy
A surgical procedure that removes the colon, rectum and anus resulting in an end ileostomy.
Penile implants
Artificial device surgically inserted to provide erection.
Perforation
A burst made by the body itself due to infection or disease
Perianal
The area or skin around the anus.
Peristalsis
The natural movement of the bowel that helps the progression of food through the digestive system.
Peristomal skin
The area of skin surrounding the stoma.
Peritonitis
Infection of the peritoneal cavity.
PET Scan
Positron emission tomography. This is a type of x-ray.
Phantom rectum
Sensation of wanting to empty the rectum when the bowel has been diverted or taken away.
Polyps
A raised area in the lining of the bowel.
Pressure sore
Ulceration of the skin due to pressure.
Proctoscope
An instrument to look at the lower end of the anus.
Prognosis
The prediction of the progression of the disease.
Prolapse
A part of an organ that protrudes from its normal position.
Proximal
Nearest to.
Psoriasis
Chronic recurrent skin condition.
Q
Quality of Life
An individual’s perception of their everyday life.
R
Radiotherapy
Deep X-rays to a diseased area.
Rectum
Final section of the bowel that leads to anus.
Reflexology
A recognised complementary therapy to aid relaxation.
Relapse
Return of the disease.
Remission
Disease not as active.
Renal
Relating to the kidney system.
Resect, resection
Removal of part of the bowel by surgery.
Retraction of the stoma
A stoma sinking below the abdominal surface.
S
SCN
Stoma care nurse.
Secondary cancer
Cancer that has spread to another area.
Sigmoid colon
Last part of large bowel that curves down towards the rectum.
Sigmoidoscopy
A rigid or flexible tube with a fibre-optic light passed into the sigmoid colon via the rectum to examine the bowel.
Sinus
A cavity.
Siting
The marking on the abdomen for the site of the stoma.
Skin barrier cream/film
An accessory to protect peristomal skin.
Slow release medicines
Medication that releases slowly into your blood system throughout the day, usually taken once or twice a day.
Small intestine
Small bowel.
Softback
Material used to cover the pouch.
Sphincter
Ring shaped muscles that contract and relax on natural openings.
Squaemous cell carcinoma
A malignant tumour often arising in the anus or bowel.
Stenosis
Narrowing of the bowel or stoma.
Stoma
Opening of the bowel on to the abdominal wall.
Strictoplasty
An operation to reshape a narrowed bowel.
Stricture
Narrowing of the bowel.
Support belt
An elasticated or made to measure belt to provide abdominal support.
Suppositories
Medication administered via the anus or stoma.
Sutures
Medical term used to describe stitches.
Systemic treatment
Whole body system is treated.
T
Total mesorectal excision
Removal of the mesorectum.
Transanal resection
A surgical procedure that removes part of the anal area.
Transparent pouch
A clear stoma pouch.
Transverse colostomy
A colostomy formed in the transverse colon.
Trauma
An injury.
Tumour
A growth of abnormal cells that can be benign or malignant.
Two-piece pouch
Includes a base plate/flange and pouch.
U
Ulcer
Loss of continuity of the skin.
Ulcerative colitis
Inflammation of large bowel/colon.
Ultrasound
An investigation using sound waves to look at internal organs.
Ureter
The tubes that run from the kidneys to the bladder.
Urethra
The tube that runs from the bladder to pass urine.
Urinary tract infection (UTI)
An infection of the urinary tract, bladder or kidneys.
Urostomy
A stoma through which urine passes.
Urostomy pouch
A pouch used to collect urine.
W
Wear time
Relates to the length of time a stoma appliance is worn.